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What are Mental Disorders?

What are Mental Disorders?

Personality, according to the definitions of therapeutic psychology, is a collective noun composed of the character, traits, feelings, thoughts and behaviors inherent and unique to a particular person; It is possible to find a wide variety of persons, in terms of characteristics and personal compositions, in a single population. When these different structures of the personality are sharp, they lack the flexibility and the constant hesitation, then it is called the “abnormal” personality (or that its owner suffers from mental disorders), as when different circumstances arise that require flexibility in these personal components, if the person has compounds that lack The flexibility in his personality, it may limit his ability to cope, and thus the person with personality disorders will be vulnerable to falling into crises and suffering, unable to lead a normal life. The person with an unnatural personality is not aware of the problem of this difference, but rather is convinced that the problem facing him lies in the people and the circumstances surrounding him, and this hinders the possibilities of treatment, as the person does not respond to treatment, and in most cases he does not see a need for treatment or change. The emergence of this abnormal personality begins in the individual in the teenage years, and unlike mental illness, the abnormal personality is a fixed structure of the individual, and it is unlikely that drug therapy affects it. The root of the problem – of an abnormal personality formation (or a personality disorder) – may lie in genetic factors and surrounding factors. Types of personality disorders are classified into specific groups and types, according to the DSM classification and diagnosis of personality types. The classification is according to common factors for different types, so that each group contains different types, but there are common basic factors between them; Which means that there may be different personalities in the same group.

Psychopathic treatment is available to treat this phenomenon, and pharmacological treatments are available to help prevent or treat the fears that arise in patients, such as depression and fear.

The first group

Included in this group are the types of loners or loners who are considered eccentric and different by others.

Paranoid personality disorder: People with paranoid personality disorder are characterized by their understanding of other people’s behaviors as directed at threatening and harming them. Often the owners of this character are very suspicious, and it is difficult to trust others; For them, these behaviors constitute a mechanism for protection from those around them, and from the harm that may be caused to them, due to the aggression and impartiality of those around them. These behaviors may pose a real problem for people with this disorder, and they may cause a lot of damage in their social, work, and marital lives, and overdoing them may cause all the troubles and the occurrence of disasters that they are already afraid of, such as causing divorce or dismissal from work.

Schizoid personality disorder: People with this disorder are characterized by introversion and isolationism, and they do not feel the need for the company of others. Often they do activities that require isolation. Loners choose to work in professions that do not require teamwork. Often times, people with this disorder prefer to spend their time in intellectual and theoretical activities and devote their emotions to caring for animals rather than caring for other people.

Schizotypal personality disorder: The owner of this personality resembles a somewhat isolating personality, except that it is more exotic, and in a way that raises attention to the style of dress and speech. He usually believes in philosophical and bizarre ideas. People with a schizoid personality strike typically have few social connections and find it difficult to integrate with others. Their inner world is like the world of children, full of imaginary friends, and they have many fears and fantasies. They are often at risk of developing chronic depression.

the second group:

Included within this group are the types of discolored personalities, such as people whose behavior is characterized by sharpness with those around them, and often they are inconsistent and inconsistent; Borderline and non-social figures also fall within this classification.

Narcissistic personality disorder: The owners of this personality are similar to the mythical character of Narcis, who fell in love with his image reflected in the water, absorbing his affairs without feeling the presence of others. People with BPD often feel condescending, important and construct fantasies that make them feel special and bright. Sometimes they act, exploitatively, and wait for the great approval and appreciation of those around them. Often, all of these behaviors are only a cover for their shaky personality and their feeling of constant need for positive stimuli and support from others. People with this disorder find it very difficult to build personal relationships, and they often suffer from loneliness, and they are susceptible to depression, especially with age.

Histrionic Personality Disorder: Some people may think that the majority of people with this disorder are among the female audience, because the owners of this personality suffer from hypersensitivity and always strive to be in the center of other people’s attention. They exaggerate their emotions, tend to be deceitful and exaggerate. Their behavior may appear somewhat seductive (depending on the recipient’s preconceptions). Under this cover, there may be deep, long-term emotional suffering that needs a lot of calming down. People with this disorder tend to have physical illnesses with no true physical cause.

Group III:

Within this group fall the types of personalities that appear to others as if they are constantly fearful and upset, and include:

Avoidant personality disorder: People with this disorder are similar to those who suffer from isolationist personality disorder, as they are often isolated and are not comfortable with mixing with others. However, their avoidance of mixing with others stems from their belittling of self and their abilities, and their disdain for themselves in an exaggerated manner. These people try to avoid mixing with people despite their strong desire to mix, for fear of receiving criticism from others. They are usually very shy, insecure and impressionable. These traits cause them to fail in their personal relationships and work lives.

Dependent personality disorder: People with this disorder are characterized by their sense of fear and their underestimation of themselves, but they are distinguished by their need for others to support them in making decisions. They are motivated to build a relationship with another person. This disorder often makes them vulnerable to being exploited by others. They usually accept this relationship tinged with exploitation for fear of being alone. A person with a dependent personality may experience a lot of psychological disorders, when someone who depends on him becomes separated from him.

Obsessive personality disorder: People with an obsessive personality are characterized by the accuracy of organization and planning, and their keen interest in the smallest details and small things. Often they have difficulties in doing the tasks, due to their tendency to perfection, so that they care that the tasks are completed perfectly, even in the smallest details. It is also difficult for them to participate with others in the work, due to their excessive eagerness to complete the work in the planned way, and their lack of acceptance of change and spontaneity. Some may view them as shallow emotions, and others may view them as holding a grudge. It is easy and convenient for them to work in jobs that require a lot of precision in detail, such as managing and controlling accounts. They may be at risk of developing depression in circumstances that require a departure from the monotony, such as receiving a promotion in the workplace.

Passive-aggressive personality disorder: People with hostile-negative personality disorder are characterized by the inability to express aggression outwardly and directly, but they resort to expressing their attacks covertly and in twisted ways, such as ineffectiveness at work, arguing, complaining, complaining, and exaggerating criticism in it. People with this disorder often feel unlucky and are often very envious of others. They provoke a lot of anger in their relationships with others, and sometimes overtly antagonize themselves; For this reason, people with this disorder often fail to build their relationship with others, and it causes harm to them in various aspects of their personal, practical and social lives.


In recent years, great progress has been made in the field of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, sometimes referred to as talk therapy, works on the assumption that the healing of a person’s suffering falls within that person himself, and that this healing can be facilitated through a reliable, supportive relationship with a psychotherapist. By creating a sympathetic and accepting climate, the therapist is often able to help the person identify the source of the problems and consider alternatives to deal with them. The emotional awareness and insight a person gains through psychotherapy often leads to a change in attitude and behavior, allowing the person to lead a fuller and more satisfying life.

Psychotherapy is appropriate in a wide variety of situations. Even people without a mental health disorder may find psychotherapy helpful in coping with some problems, such as work difficulties, grief or a chronic illness in the family. Group psychotherapy (in a group), marital therapy, and family therapy are all widely used.

Most mental health practitioners practice one of six types of psychotherapy: supportive psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, dynamic psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, or interpersonal therapy.

Supportive psychotherapy, which is most commonly used, is based on a sympathetic and supportive relationship between the person and the therapist. It encourages the expression of feelings, and the therapist provides assistance in solving the problem. Problem-focused psychotherapy, which is a form of supportive therapy, can be used successfully by primary care physicians.

Psychoanalysis is the oldest form of psychotherapy, and it was developed by Sigmund Freud in the first half of the twentieth century. Usually 4 or 5 times a week, a person lies on a couch in a therapist’s office and tries to say whatever comes to mind, a practice called free association. This places a lot of emphasis on understanding how past relationship patterns replicate in the present. The relationship between the person and the therapist is an essential part of this focus. Understanding how the past affects the present helps a person develop new and more adaptive ways of performing in relationships and in the workplace.

Dynamic psychotherapy, like psychoanalysis, emphasizes the identification of unconscious patterns in current thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. But the person usually sits rather than lying on the couch, and only attends 1-3 sessions per week. In addition, less emphasis is placed on the relationship between the person and the therapist.

Cognitive therapy helps people identify problems with thinking and understand how these problems or distortions lead to problems in their lives. This assumes that how patients feel and behave depends on their interpretation of the experiences. By learning about basic beliefs and assumptions, patients or people learn to think in different ways about their experiences and reduce symptoms, which leads to improved behavior and feelings.

Behavioral therapy is associated with cognitive therapy. Sometimes a combination of the two is used, known as cognitive-behavioral therapy.

The theoretical basis for behavioral therapy is learning theory, which says that abnormal behaviors are due to faulty learning. Behavior therapy involves a number of interventions designed to help a person overlook or forget behaviors that are maladaptive to learning adaptive behavior. Exposure therapy, which is often used to treat phobias, is an example of behavioral therapy.

Interpersonal therapy was initially pictured as a short psychological treatment for depression, and aims to improve the quality of relationships in a person with depression. This therapeutic type focuses on persistent grief, the conflicts that arise when patients are forced to take on roles that differ from their expectations (for example, when a woman enters into a relationship in which she expects to be a mother at home and finds that she should be the main breadwinner in the family as well), and shifts in roles Social (such as moving from active work to retirement), and difficulty communicating with others. Here, the therapist trains the person to improve aspects of personal relationships, such as overcoming social isolation and responding in a less usual way to others.

Nahar Center Staff

Treatment at the Nahar Center is under the care of the best doctors and psychiatric consultants around the clock

Get to know our medical team

Dr.. Amjad Al Ajroudi
Dr.. Amjad Al AjroudiChairman of the Center's Board of Directors
Consultant of psychiatry, addiction and family relations
Dr.. Mohamed Salah Mansour
Dr.. Mohamed Salah Mansour
Consultant Psychotherapy & Addiction Treatment
Dr.. Mohamed Soliman


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